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1988 Arctic Cooperation Agreement

If Iceland joins the European Union, the EU will increase its influence on the Arctic and could gain permanent observer status in the Arctic Council. The northern dimension policy of the European Union, launched in the late 1990s, aimed to address issues relating to Western Russia and to strengthen general cooperation between the EU, Iceland and Norway. Since then, it has become a multilateral and egalitarian partnership between the EU, Iceland, Norway and Russia. Canada and the United States are observers of the partnership. Three members of the Nordic Council joined the EU (Denmark in 1973 and Sweden and Finland in 1995). The European Union`s request to become a “permanent observer” at the Arctic Council was blocked by Canada in 2009 in response to the European Union embargo on seal products. [5] At the Arctic Council ministerial meeting on April 24, 2015, a task force on Arctic marine cooperation was established to examine future needs for cooperation on Arctic maritime issues. [4] The Barents Euro-Arctic Council (BEAC) (BArents) is the forum for intergovernmental cooperation in the Barents region, established in 1993 to “give impetus to existing cooperation and to examine new initiatives and proposals”. [6] Members include Russia, Norway, Denmark, Iceland, Finland, Sweden and the European Communities Commission. Arctic cooperation and policy are partly coordinated by the Arctic Council, made up of the eight Arctic nations: the United States of America, Canada, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia and Denmark, along with Greenland and the Faroe Islands. [1] The dominant power in Arctic policy is found in the executive offices, legislative bodies and implementing bodies of the eight Arctic nations and, to a lesser extent, in other countries such as Britain, Germany, the European Union and China.

NGOs and universities play an important role in Arctic policy. Intergovernmental bodies such as the United Nations (particularly under the Law of the Sea Treaty) and NATO are also important. On 27 April 2010, Norway and Russia announced the end of their 40-year demarcation conflict in the Barents Sea.

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