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The Agreement That Divided South America

Isabella and Ferdinand had good reason to appease Portugal. Although he was advised in May and June 1494, the Treaty of Tordesillas was a year-long process of uncertainty, with a high potential for war between two countries and Spain`s fear for its role in the conquests of the Atlantic. The road to treaty negotiations began when the explorer Christopher Columbus was stormed back from his maiden voyage to India. He had to anchor near Lisbon, and although his voyage was sponsored by the Spanish monarchs Ferdinand II and Isabella I, he was obliged to share the news of his discoveries with John II, the King of Portugal. Convinced that the new islands fell under the Treaty of Alcuovas-Toledo of 1479, which transferred land to Portugal south of the Canary Islands, John II declared them sovereign. On 13 January 1750, King John the V of Portugal and Ferdinand VI of Spain signed the Treaty of Madrid, in which the two sides attempted to establish the borders between Brazil and Spanish America, admitting that the Treaty of Tordesillas, as envisaged in 1494, had been annulled and considered inconclusive. Spain has recognized sovereignty over the Philippines, while Portugal would retain the territory of the Amazon basin. Portugal would abandon the colony of Sacramento on the north bank of the Plata River in present-day Uruguay, while receiving the territory of the Seven Missions. [47] None of them knew yet that the new line crossed the summit of Brazil, thus placing the east coast of that country under the domination of Portugal.

In 1500, the Portuguese navigator Pedro Alvarez Cabral met him during his journey and claimed him for his king. In the following centuries, Portugal expanded its influence within the country and Brazil became the only Portuguese-speaking nation on the American continent. “For the vast majority of the Brazilian people [today], the Treaty of Tordesillas means a declaration that the Portuguese crown could take possession of “unknown” Western countries,” said Ana Paula Torres Megiani, professor of Iberian history at the University of Sao Paulo.┬áBut it is also an important historical moment to understand the relationship between domination and hegemony between Europe and the world.┬áThe goods, sanctioned by the treaty, continued, even when Spain and Portugal were reunited under a single king between 1580 and 1640, until the Treaty of Madrid was replaced by the Treaty of Madrid of 1750. The invasion of the North American continent and its peoples began with the Spanish in 1565 at St. Augustine, Florida, and again in 1587, when the Plymouth Company founded a colony they called Roanoke in present-day Virginia. This first colony mysteriously failed and, in 1606, the London Company established a presence in Jamestown, Virginia. From there, the French founded Quebec in 1608, then the Dutch founded a colony in 1609 in present-day New York. During this period, when the Indians opposed European efforts to accumulate land and power, they struggled to reach them, while fighting new diseases introduced by Europeans and the slave trade.

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